By D. Robertson
This booklet deals a accomplished advisor to records and corporations that are thinking about the problems of human rights. It comprises updated definitions and brief essays approximately all the three hundred entries. The entries are prepared alphabetically, cross-referenced, and divided into neighborhood and nationwide variations. motives of the felony elements and implications also are integrated. The booklet lists businesses that are fascinated by human rights, together with Amnesty foreign, ecu fee on Human Rights and Conseil d'Etat. It additionally lists a number of extracts from files written approximately human rights, together with the "Bill of Rights 1688", the "European Social constitution" and the "Convention opposed to Torture". The publication discusses the elemental principles of rights and liberties, and the function of conventions, declarations, courts, tribunals and criminal structures upholding them. It presents concise outlines of the final positons on human rights for all prime built nations. it's going to be worthwhile to public and educational libraries, scholars, academics, reporters and any association or person with an curiosity in human rights concerns.
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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Human Rights
The right to silence both after arrest and during the trial seems to raise questions of conflict with the need to arrive at the truth. The final category of rights presents perhaps the most basic of all tests of a nation’s human rights record, because the very fact of conviction and punishment means that many, if not most, civil rights are being taken away. The focus here is on the nature of the punishment itself, and is one of the oldest concerns, often revolving around the core prohibition on cruel and unusual punishments .
It is, however, by no means always the case that the law imposes the burden of proof entirely on the prosecution. There are several situations where all the prosecution has to do is to prove a specific fact, and where this fact will be held to be conclusive proof of a crime unless a convincing explanation can be given. Often drugs offences work this way, so that merely being in possession of a certain quantity of an illegal drug is in itself evidence of intent to supply that drug, always a more serious crime than mere possession, unless the court can be convinced, by the accused, that he had no such intent.
Originally the idea of a chilling effect covered the giving up of First Amendment rights by those frightened that challenging a possibly unconstitutional restriction on them would bring prosecution which it would be preferable to avoid, even if the prosecution ultimately failed. The First Amendment rights are the highly political rights to freedom of speech , freedom of assembly , press, petition and the various religious freedom rights. If people are deterred from claiming their political rights to protest against governments for fear that a court may deem their actions unprotected, the value of the rights themselves is much discounted.
A Dictionary of Human Rights by D. Robertson