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By Ian J. Press

The sequence builds an in depth number of prime quality descriptions of languages worldwide. every one quantity bargains a accomplished grammatical description of a unmarried language including totally analyzed pattern texts and, if applicable, a glossary and different suitable info that's to be had at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language kinfolk or quarter, and even supposing certain realization is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and precious remedies of higher identified languages also are integrated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the single criterion is a excessive common of medical caliber.

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What of the other consonants in the syntagma? Consider the following: (7) an hini mat the DETPRON good - an hint vat - the DETPRON good "the good one" ( M / F r e f e r e n c e ) (8) an hini the DETPRON poor n'the . paour - an hini baour - the DETPRON poor poor one" ( M / F r e f e r e n c e ) The m/v distinction seems weird, and surely c/b_ is a voice distinction. In the first case, however, m. is exclusively fortis in Breton, with v being the reflex of original lenis m. (and lenis bj. So we have a fortis/lenis pair here.

2) SP: spirantization, or the spirant/fricative mutation. 3) PR: provection, or the reinforcing/strengthening/fortis mutation. 4) MX: the mixed mutation. 5. Simplifying, and giving only the mutations of the standard language, one may propose: written TABLE 5 THE CONSONANTAL MUTATIONS OF W R I T T E N BRETON I N PR/MX PR LN i C b m R U E f l τ LN/MX A \ / g cfh. 6W I LN/MX LN/MX LN S I -n LN LN LN L 3 g (SP) N (SP) (SP) G S 4 v ( ' )f n 1 r c'h 0 N 0 R 5 W I T Υ •VOWELS In Table 5 Level 2, n, l and, according to dialect, i, are written geminate when non-absolute-word-initial and fortis.

Gouarn "(to) steer, govern" (from French eouverner). douar "land, earth". The group QS. g. the native root loen ['ll en] or ['llwe:n] "animal"; note the extension of nasalization (and note non-native ooent. Fr point). Kervella also gives, as diphthongs tending to contract, as. ]; L has metathesis), aou - including &v ([u:]). 23-4 sees them as more abundant and offers more analysis. g. g. frouezh "fruit") he sees two. g. g. heol "sun"). If the diphthong is followed by a vowel, the second, closer, element becomes a semi-consonant [j], [w], [w] and behaves as if fortis: faeus ffajys] "contemptuous", botaouer [bo'tawer] "cobbler", re uhel ['rrewel] "too high" (compare re uhel [rre'yel] "high ones").

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A Grammar of Modern Breton by Ian J. Press

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