New PDF release: A reference grammar of Korean

By Samuel Elmo Martin

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There are bits of evidence for the traditional Seoul treatment as early as the end of the nineteenth century, when Tayshin in his 1898 Korean-Russian dictionary wrote the equivalent of /usimi/ for uysim 'doubt' (with the accretion of the suffix -i that is widely attested in North Korea), though he wrote /uisik/ for uysik 'clothes'. The Phyengan development for uy is i but the particle is either ey (as in Seoul) or u (as in Cincwu, Mkk 1960:3:31). ) 'win'. 4. Consonant descriptions. The lax obstruents are weakly articulated; in initial position they are released with a slight puff of local breath (in contrast with the heavy breathing of the aspirates) but are less tense than their English counterparts: [b'] for p···.

The default Hankul spelling is ···k­ P"' ( ... ) for ALL cases of /kpp/ ( ... ) except when the second element is clearly a form that has a basic shape with initial pp·.. ( ... ). The string /yakpalle/ can represent both yak palle 'applies medicine' and yak-ppalle 'is shrewd and quick'. ko ppalle /yakko( )ppalle/ 'is shrewd and is quick'. As in other cases where morphophonemic decisions are called for, Koreans sometimes get confused and misspell words, either in the morphophonemically safer direction (-kp-, ...

Medials that begin with w (wi wey way we wa) do not occur after a labial except as abbreviations of wu or o + vowel (wui wuey wuay wue wua oa), as in mwe(s) < mue(s) 'what'. Whenever possible, a syllable shuns the "zero" initial. Korean syllables like to begin with a consonant. When a syllable with the zero initial is appended to a syllable with a final consonant, that consonant shifts over to become the onset of the second syllable: pap + i is pronounced pa-pi, pang + ey is pronounced pa-ngey, pal + ul is pronounced pa-Jul and sounds just the same as pa + Jul.

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A reference grammar of Korean by Samuel Elmo Martin

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