By Mohammed Kakar
Few individuals are extra revered or larger located to talk at the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan than M. Hassan Kakar. A professor at Kabul collage and student of Afghanistan affairs on the time of the 1978 coup d'état, Kakar vividly describes the occasions surrounding the Soviet invasion in 1979 and the stumble upon among the army superpower and the poorly armed Afghans. The occasions that are conscientiously specific, with eyewitness bills and authoritative documentation that supply an exceptional view of this old moment.
Because of his prominence Kakar used to be first and foremost taken care of with deference by way of the Marxist executive and used to be now not imprisoned, even though he brazenly criticized the regime. while he used to be placed at the back of bars the outcry from students around the world in all likelihood stored his lifestyles. In felony for 5 years, he persevered accumulating info, a lot of it from favourite Afghans of various political persuasions who have been themselves prisoners.
Kakar brings firsthand wisdom and a historian's sensibility to his account of the invasion and its aftermath. this can be either a private rfile and a ancient one--Kakar lived during the occasions he describes, and his crisis for human rights instead of get together politics infuses his writing. As Afghans and the remainder of the realm try and make feel of Afghanistan's contemporary prior, Kakar's voice could be a kind of so much listened to.
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Additional resources for Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Serious also was the exploitation of the locals by government officials. But they were not the only people who had been exploited, nor was theirs the only region that had remained undeveloped. Besides, the exploiters were not only Pashtun officials but all officials, since the bureaucracy—particularly after the spread of modern free education—was open to all ethnic groups. Also, since Afghan Dari (Persian) was the medium of bureaucracy, Persian-speaking Afghans dominated it. With the extension of the government’s direct control over the country since the days of Amir Abdur Rahman, Afghan Persian has made steady progress.
Administrations had always considered Afghanistan to be within the Soviet influence. Still, the Soviet Union preferred to see its troops invited before moving militarily. The question thus arises, were the Soviet troops invited, or did the Soviet Union invade Afghanistan without an invitation? • • • Invasion without Invitation Since the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan when Amin was in power, the invitation for its troops should have come from him. As prime minister and minister of defense, president of the Revolutionary Council, and general secretary of the party, Amin was the central figure.
In other words, after 1980 the Afghans were forced to pay with their natural resources for the invasion and occupation of their own country and the destruction of their own people. Also, in early 1980 Soviet experts began to increase gas production by 65 percent. Afghan gas fields at a place near Shiberghan were (as of 1977) estimated to have reserves in excess of 500 trillion cubic feet. In 1979 Soviet experts discovered another gas-bearing zone in northern Afghanistan capable of producing one-quarter million cubic meters per day.
Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982 by Mohammed Kakar