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The time expiring between crack initiation and detection may constitute a large proportion of component fatigue life. Fatigue initiation curves indicate how many stress cycles it takes to initiate fatigue cracks. These curves, which are materials specific, relate the allowable number of stress cycles to applied cyclic stress amplitudes. 5]. The fatigue curves are obtained from best fit curves and include a factor of 2 on stress or a factor of 20 on cycles, whichever is more conservative. These factors account for the effects of different characteristics that influence susceptibility to fatigue failure.

NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION, Reactor Pressure Vessel Status Report, Rep. NUREG-1511, USNRC, Washington, DC (1994). , Technology of Steel Pressure Vessel for Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors, ORNL-NSIC-21, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (1967). , Reactor Vessel Embrittlement Management Handbook, TR-101975-T2, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (1993). 3. 1]. The objective of designing and performing a stress analysis under the rules of Section III to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is to afford protection of life and property against ductile and brittle RPV failure.

03), fatigue crack initiation is not expected during RPV service life. Thus, fatigue damage of the bottom head of the vessel is not a significant ageing degradation mechanism. This conclusion applies to all bottom head design variations. The problem with temperature difference is that changes in flow can cause it to diminish suddenly, thus plant procedure preclude changing flow until the temperature difference is within the limits. Following procedures will preclude any damage. Closure studs Vessel closure studs are subjected to low cycle loads associated with repeated pre-stressing resulting primarily from head removal and installation.

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Ageing of Nucl. Powerplant Compnts. - BWR Pressure Vessels (IAEA TECDOC-1470)

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