Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea - download pdf or read online

By John Haugeland

ISBN-10: 0262081539

ISBN-13: 9780262081535

The concept human considering and laptop computing are "radically an identical" offers the relevant subject matter for this marvelously lucid and witty e-book on what synthetic intelligence is all approximately. even if offered completely in nontechnical

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Hence all the old embarrassments return about exerting forces without hav­ ing any mass, electric charge, etc. : meanings as such simply cannot affect a physical mechanism. But suppose this problem could be resolved . ) Would that finish the matter? Not quite; for the status of the manipulator remains disconcertingly unsettled. We're assuming, for the moment, that it manipulates thought symbols reasonably, by "paying attention " to the meanings of the symbols and the rules of reason. But how, exactly, does that work?

Thus the tokens for tic-tac-toe are usually O's and X's, written Copyrighted Material 49 Automatic Formal Systems down with chalk or pencil; and, for many electronic games, the tokens a re actually switch settings and colored light patterns. Manipulating tokens means one or more of the following: 1. , moving them around on some board or playing field); 2. altering them (or replacing them with different ones); 3. adding new ones to the position; and/or 4. taking some away. In chess and checkers, for example, the pieces are mostly moved, sometimes removed (captured), and occasionally altered (pro­ moted); but new ones are never added .

For as arithmeticians teach to add and subtract in numbers; so the geometricians teach the same in lines, fig­ ures, . . lO Hobbes no doubt overstretched the metaphor of "addition," but we can wink at that after all these years. More interesting is his inclusion of time, swiftness, force, etc. in the domain of geome­ tricians; dearly he is thinking of Galileo. Hobbes greatly admired Galileo, and in 1 634 j ourneyed all the way to Italy j ust to meet him. More particularly, the great Italian's discovery that physics could be conducted with all the methodical rigor of geometric proof directly inspired Hobbes's conception of intellectual method in general.

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Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea by John Haugeland

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