Read e-book online Atmospheric Thermodynamics PDF

By Craig F. Bohren

ISBN-10: 0195099044

ISBN-13: 9780195099041

This accomplished textual content relies at the authors' direction notes, subtle and up to date over 15 years of training. The middle of the textual content makes a speciality of water and its changes. 4 chapters lay the basis, from strength conservation to the fitting fuel legislation, particular warmth capacities, adiabatic tactics, and entropy. an intensive bankruptcy treats section transitions of water, and a long dialogue of the van der Waals equation units the level for part diagrams. unfastened strength is utilized to deciding on the influence of dissolved ingredients, overall strain, and dimension on vapor strain. The bankruptcy on wet air and clouds discusses wet-bulb and digital temperatures, isentropic ascent of saturated air, thermodynamic diagrams, balance, and cloud formation. the ultimate bankruptcy covers strength, momentum, and mass move, subject matters no longer often thought of a part of thermodynamics. Measurements are integrated and experiments and observations are instructed, all with the purpose of respiring lifestyles into equations. The authors are cautious to acknowledge and unafraid to criticize the remedies of thermodynamics which were unchanged for greater than 100 years.

Atmospheric Thermodynamics comprises over two hundred workouts, typically purposes of simple rules to concrete difficulties. frequently encouraged by way of inquisitive scholars and co-workers, the workouts conceal every thing from vehicles and airplanes to baseball, wind generators, and floor hogs. The authors weave historical past into the textual content via drawing on unique writings instead of utilizing textbook anecdotes, and molecular interpretations are given at any place attainable. Assumptions and approximations are rigorously laid out, derivations are specific, and equations are interpreted bodily and utilized. No past wisdom of thermodynamics or kinetic thought is thought, even supposing scholars are anticipated to be well-grounded in calculus, differential equations, vector research, and classical mechanics.

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In some chemistry textbooks and popular works on science it is stated that Dalton started from the empirical discovery that nitrogen and oxygen ca~ combine in two different ratios, leading to the formation of two different nitrogen-oxygen compounds. In one of these, according to this account, exactly twice as much oxygen reacts with a given amount of nitrogen as in the other reaction. From this fact Dalton supposedly arrived at the hypothesis that the reactions involve combinations of individual atoms: one nitrogen plus one oxygen, or one nitrogen plus two oxygen.

In Chapter Five we will see how the second strategy was maintained as a research program into the 20th century. The first alternative, despite its Cartesian aspect, was also pursued by those who considered themselves Newtonians, and this resulted in curiosities such as the kinetic theory of gravity, the vortex atom, and the virtual photon-exchange concept of modern quantum electrodynamics. Newton himself chose the second alternative when he wrote the section on air pressure in the Principia. He suggested that air acts as if it were composed of particles that exert repulsive forces on neighboring particles, 22 CHAPTER I the magnitude of the force being inversely proportional to the distance between them.

Since the word "paradigm" has been widely adopted in this connection (in spite of or perhaps because of its vagueness and flexibility), I will use it here; this does not imply acceptance of Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions, since Kuhn himself (1974) has now abandoned his original use of"paradigm" in favor of other, more restricted terms. I will thus use "paradigm" as a primitive undefined concept, assuming the reader will have gleaned some idea of what it means from the extensive discussions of the last decade.

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Atmospheric Thermodynamics by Craig F. Bohren


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