By Tom Rockmore
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Additional info for Before and After 9 11: A Philosophical Examination of Globalization, Terror, and History
There is, for instance, no satisfactory mono-causal analysis of the Iraq War. I come back to this point below. There is also no reason to think that cultural difference, which is as old as civilization, has now become more important than such other causes of international conflict, such as ideology and economics. Ideology is probably never absent from politics, including American politics. It was visible in many facets of the administrations of George W. Bush. It has arguably changed in the Obama administration, but has not somehow suddenly vanished.
Americans, including those who formulate this policy, are often uninformed about their own history, and even less informed about the history of other countries. 2 Bernard Lewis, the well-known historian of the Middle East, maintains the Islamic world has failed to adjust the modern world (by which he 32 BEFORE AND AFTER 9/11 means the West), leading to a clash of religions that is the overall explanation of 9/11. ”3 Religious Explanation of Historical Phenomena Lewis explains current events through the role of the religious dimension of modern life.
A more controversial example is the US attitude toward Iran after 9/11, a country that is apparently making progress toward developing nuclear weapons, but which also possesses oil as well as very large reserves of natural gas. A factor in the decision to enter into war with Iraq seemed to be the view that its oil would defray the costs of the conflict. I also return to this point below. Huntington groups countries in terms of culture and/or civilization to explain conflict. Cultures belong to civilizations, which do not belong to any other entity.
Before and After 9 11: A Philosophical Examination of Globalization, Terror, and History by Tom Rockmore