By John Connelly
This comparative background of the better schooling platforms in Poland, East Germany, and the Czech lands finds an unforeseen range inside of East eu stalinism. With info gleaned from data in each one of those areas, John Connelly bargains a important case research exhibiting how totalitarian states adapt their rules to the contours of the societies they rule.
The Communist dictum that universities be purged of "bourgeois components" was once entire such a lot totally in East Germany, the place an increasing number of scholars got here from employee and peasant backgrounds. however the Polish get together stored very likely disloyal professors at the activity within the futile desire that they might teach a brand new intelligentsia, and Czech stalinists did not make employee and peasant scholars a majority at Czech universities.
Connelly money owed for those variations by means of exploring the prestalinist background of those international locations, and especially their reviews in global warfare II. The failure of Polish and Czech leaders to rework their universities turned relatively glaring through the crises of 1968 and 1989, whilst collage scholars spearheaded reform routine. In East Germany, against this, universities remained precise to the kingdom to the tip, and scholars have been particularly absent from the revolution of 1989.
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This comparative heritage of the better schooling platforms in Poland, East Germany, and the Czech lands unearths an unforeseen variety inside East ecu stalinism. With details gleaned from documents in each one of those areas, John Connelly bargains a useful case examine displaying how totalitarian states adapt their regulations to the contours of the societies they rule.
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Additional info for Captive University: The Sovietization of East German, Czech, and Polish Higher Education, 1945-1956
24 The NEP period was a time of contradictions, and debates raged on how Soviet Russia should develop. With the ascendancy of Stalin, those debates were decided in favor of rapid industrial growth, and the First Five-Year Plan increased the capacities of higher education in a way that was unprecedented in history. 28 This "Great Break" proved the nadir of university education in the Soviet Union. 30 This scheme supposedly rationalized planning, because production ministries could coordinate the needs of their sectors with the output of the schools under their charge.
To be sure, education acted to reproduce inequality throughout European higher education. In the 1920s and 1930s the laboring classes were strongly underrepresented, even in relatively enlightened places like Czechoslovakia. 15 Yet those inequalities were not as extreme as in Russia. Early in the twentieth century, when literacy in Germany and the Czech lands approached 100 percent, half of Russia's school-age children attended no school at all. When long-delayed reforms finally came due, education would have a crucial role in creating a more humane society.
Little was known about these years in Poland, including when they began. This indeed was the first question posed in Torahska's interview with Edward Ochab, the Central Committee secretary in charge of culture and education from 1950 to 1956. But it was asked of her and not by her. 2 This fact is most evident in the economy, where most of the nationalizing and expropriating had occurred before 1948. But it was also true of higher education: the more that Communists could dismantle of the old system's conservative canons and structures in 1945 or 1946, the less they would need to do later.
Captive University: The Sovietization of East German, Czech, and Polish Higher Education, 1945-1956 by John Connelly