By Ahmed Moutaouakil
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Extra resources for Pragmatic Functions in a Functional Grammar of Arabic
They are pragmatic phenomena. Accordingly, they are studied above all under the heading of Rhetoric. As regards the interaction between utterance and situation, the traditional Arabic rhetoricians (cf. Sakkäkl 1938:81) propose a tripartite typology of situational contexts: (i) the class of contexts in which the speaker is talking to an uninformed addressee ('hall d-dihn') (ii) The class of contexts in which the speaker is talking to an addressee wavering between two pieces of information ('mutaraddid'); (iii) the class of contexts in which the speaker is talking to an addressee denying some piece of information ('munkir').
Focus may be assigned to constituents other than those immediately following /й', cf. am Hâlidan) Q met Zaydnom "Amran or Hàlidacc ' D i d Zayd meet 'Amr (or H â l i d ) ? ' We will have occasion to return to this point in the following section, when discussing the assignment of the Focus function. 2. Contrastive Focus Sentences receiving Contrastive Focus are compatible with the class of contexts CON II: they convey information that is in conflict with the information possessed by the addressee.
C. ' Although these sentences share the property of containing a constituent to which Focus function has been assigned, they cannot all be used in the same class of contexts. e. preverbal) constituent (3); and on the other hand, sentences (4), in which the Focused constituent is indicated solely by means of the tonic accent, and the sentences that contain an interrogative pronoun (5). The sentences in the former group correspond to CON II, and those in the latter group to CON I. I claimed above that the two classes of contexts are associated with two distinct types of Focus.
Pragmatic Functions in a Functional Grammar of Arabic by Ahmed Moutaouakil